SUATU PENGENALAN STRUKTUR ASAS PERLEMBAGAAN DARI PERSPEKTIF MALAYSIA [AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE CONSTITUTION FROM THE MALAYSIAN PERSPECTIVE]

Authors

  • Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Keywords:

basic structure of the constitution, watanic jurisprudence, principle of sovereignty, Malay custom, local circumstances

Abstract

Doktrin struktur asas perlembagaan dikritik hebat kerana menerimapakai prinsip berlandaskan keputusan Mahkamah Agung India. Mantan Ketua Hakim Negara Tun Abdul Hamid Mohamad menolak keras doktrin tersebut kerana prinsipnya bercanggah dengan Perkara 159 Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan melampaui bidang kuasa sedia ada mahkamah. Artikel ini memeriksa keadaan-keadaan tempatan yang mendirikan struktur asas perlembagaan dari sudut jurisprudens watan. Jurisprudens watan ialah metod berlandaskan sejarah perundangan tempatan melalui penyelidikan mendalam serta pemerhatian fakta-fakta sejarah berkaitan dan dokumen-dokumen perundangan sebelum dan pasca Hari Merdeka. Dapatan menunjukkan Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia secara nyata memelihara keadaan-keadaan tempatan yang mendasari struktur asas kenegaraan dan kedaulatannya tetapi tertakluk pada syarat pindaan yang ketat. Justeru, struktur asas Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang sebenar ialah prinsip kedaulatan berpaksikan pada sumpah Yang di-Pertuan Agong berserta perkara-perkara yang terjumlah dalam Perkara 38(4), Perkara 159(5) dan Perkara 161E Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Perlembagaan Persekutuan ialah undang-undang tertinggi negara justeru Mahkamah hendaklah melaksanakan bidangkuasa sedia ada dan tanggungjawab untuk memelihara ketinggian perlembagaan dan kedaulatan undang-undangnya.

The doctrine of the basic structure of the constitution was criticised for adopting the principle decided by the Indian Supreme Court. Former Chief Justice Tun Abdul Hamid Mohamad critically opposed the said doctrine because its principles contradict Article 159 of the Federal Constitution and beyond the inherent jurisdiction of the court. This article examines the local circumstances that construct the basic structure of the constitution viewed from the watanic jurisprudence. The watanic jurisprudence is a methodology based on local legal history with an in-depth research and observation upon relevant historical facts and legal documents before and after Independence Day. The findings indicate that the Federal Constitution of Malaysia expressly preserves the local circumstances underlying the basic structure of its statehood and sovereignty but subject to strict conditional amendments. Hence, the legitimate basic structure of the Federal Constitution is the principle of sovereignty based on the oath of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong together with matters aggravated in Article 38(4), Article 159(5) and Article 161E of the Federal Constitution.The Federal Constitution is the country's highest law hence the Court shall exercise its inherent jurisdiction and responsibility to preserve the supremacy of its constitution and the rule of law.

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Published

2021-02-05